Recent blog posts

Sofema Online takes a deep dive into the business process of Aircraft Leasing and considers various best practices which can be used to minimize exposure.

Aircraft leasing is a strategic option for airlines seeking flexibility and financial efficiency.

> By understanding lease types, conducting thorough due diligence, negotiating favorable terms, implementing risk management strategies, maintaining open communication, and preparing for lease return, you can minimize exposure and maximize the benefits of aircraft leasing.

> Equip yourself with the knowledge and resources to navigate the intricacies of aircraft leasing, ensuring a smooth and profitable journey in the skies.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the proposed action to improve aviation safety by making System Safety Assessment (SSA) Certification requirements more comprehensive and consistent.

Details of Proposed Change

The FAA proposes revised and new safety standards to reduce the likelihood of potentially catastrophic risks due to latent failures in critical systems.

>> The standards would require the elimination of such risks as far as practical. When it is not practical to eliminate such a risk, the standards would require the reduction and management of any remaining risk.
>> The proposed standards would also improve the likelihood that operators discover latent failures and address them before they become an unsafe condition, rather than discovering them after they occur and the FAA addressing them with airworthiness directives (ADs).

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers Aircraft de-icing and anti-icing critical procedures in aviation safety, particularly in regions experiencing cold weather and icy conditions.

The process of aircraft de-icing and anti-icing is a complex but essential aspect of aviation safety, especially in colder climates. The emphasis on thorough training and strict adherence to standards ensures that these procedures are carried out effectively, efficiently, and safely, thereby maintaining the highest levels of safety in the aviation industry.

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Sofema Online (SOL) looks at the role of O&SHA as part of the Aircraft Certification Program

Introduction Evaluating an Operating and Support Hazard Analysis

The O&SHA identifies hazards/risks occurring during the use of the system. It encompasses operating the system (primarily procedural aspects) and the support functions (e.g., maintenance, servicing, overhaul, facilities, equipment, training) that go along with operating the system.

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Sofema Online (SAS) considers key aspects of EASA Part 147 Practical Training

Practical Considerations TNA

For the purpose of identifying the specific elements constituting the training course, it is acceptable to use a filtering method based on criteria such as:

>> Frequency of the task;

>> Human factor issues associated to the task;

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers a brief summary of what each element of the required Safety Management System will be documented within the Maintenance Organisation MOE.

Introduction – Consider the following elements (required)

>> 3.1 Hazard identification and safety risk management schemes
>> 3.2 Internal safety reporting and investigations
>> 3.3 Safety action planning
>> 3.4 Safety performance monitoring
>> 3.5 Change management
>> 3.6 Safety training (including human factors) and promotion
>> 3.7 Immediate safety action and coordination with the operator’s emergency response plan (ERP)

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Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the Safety Precautions and Best Practices including preparation and cleaning related to the inspection of aviation composite during maintenance checks.


Maintaining aviation composites involves thorough inspections and approved repairs when needed to ensure the structural integrity of the aircraft.

Inspection of aircraft composite materials should be performed with utmost care, strictly following safety precautions and adhering to best practices. This will ensure the aircraft's structural integrity, guaranteeing the safety of its operations.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the fundamentals to provide a practical hands-on session to build process confidence and develop competence.


In this practical hands-on session, we will focus on assessing the serviceability of composite materials using an aviation composite tap testing hammer. The tap testing method allows us to detect and evaluate such damage by analyzing the acoustic response of the composite material. Let's dive into the step-by-step procedure.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the key aspects of the CCA process

Common Cause Analysis

Common Cause Analysis (CCA) describes the method used to identify the potential for common-cause failures (CCFs) within a system, where multiple components fail simultaneously due to a single event or shared cause.

In the context of certification, a comprehensive CCA is crucial. Regulatory bodies require a systematic approach to identifying and mitigating safety risks, including CCFs. Therefore, demonstrating a rigorous CCA is often a requirement for certification of an aviation flight control system

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the challenges related to the following damage of composite material

>> Barely Visible Damage (BVD)
>> and Externally Non-Visible Damage (NVD).


Composite materials typically do not don’t show damage in the same way metals do. Additionally, composites are susceptible to hidden cracks and defects that may occur during manufacturing or service.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers core terms and definitions familiar within EASA European Aviation Domains.

Aviation Cybersecurity: The protection of aviation systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification.

Cybersecurity Incident: Any unauthorized or malicious activity that poses a threat to the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of aviation systems and data.

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI): Information about potential or current attacks that threaten an organization. CTI in the aviation industry often includes threats to aviation security systems and infrastructure.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the major challenges related to the need to address Cyber Security.

Aviation Cyber Security Strategy Introduction

The civil aviation sector is increasingly reliant on the availability of information and communications technology systems, as well as on the integrity and confidentiality of data.

The threat posed by possible cyber incidents to civil aviation is continuously evolving, with threat actors focusing on malicious intents, disruptions of business continuity and the theft of information for political, financial or other motivations.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the requirements introduced following the release of Annex VI to ED Decision 2023/010/R ‘AMC and GM to Part-145 — Issue 2, Amendment 6’


According to EASA  - The current European aviation safety regulatory framework contains a series of requirements which are aimed at reducing the likelihood of an accident happening.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the use of the ICAO 5 x 5 Matrix as a Risk Assessment Tool.


ICAO 5 x 5 Risk Assessment is a widely used risk assessment methodology in the aviation industry. It involves the assessment of the likelihood and severity of a potential risk and assigning a score to each based on a five-point scale. The scores are then multiplied to give an overall risk score.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the terms, definitions, and differences related to Practical Assessment from an EASA perspective.


 Appendix III 4.2.

  • Practical Assessment is performed by Part-147 within an approved maintenance environment.

>>  (Part-145, with A rating, manufacturer) under the Part-147 approval

>>  Defined maintenance environment as described in the directly approved procedure by the competent authority (66.B.130) - Reference: Appendix III 1(b)

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers best practices and procedures related to Aircraft Lavatory Servicing.


Aircraft toilet servicing is a vital aspect of aircraft maintenance. Ensuring that the vacuum toilet system operates flawlessly is essential for the well-being and comfort of passengers as well as health and sanitation.

By adhering to these health and safety standards, airlines and maintenance providers can ensure the well-being of their employees, passengers, and the environment

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Sofema Online (SOL) takes into consideration the exposure which is presented by Foreign Object Debris (FOD)

The Menace of Foreign Object Debris in Maintenance Overhaul Facilities: An Exploration of Safety Exposure

>> Foreign Object Debris (FOD) refers to a substance, debris, or particle which is alien to the component or system and therefore has the potential to cause damage.
>> Foreign Object Debris in maintenance overhaul facilities is a significant concern due to the potential damage to aircraft, associated safety risks, and considerable financial implications.
>> A comprehensive approach is required to address this problem, encompassing technological solutions, rigorous procedures, continuous training, and a robust FOD awareness culture.
>> Preventing FOD in these facilities is not just about maintaining efficiency or reducing costs but is crucial for ensuring the safety of operations.

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Sofema Online (SOL)  reviews best practices for a routine Aircraft Cabin Cleaning Operation – Consider the Following Example Work Instruction

Introduction & Safety Precautions

  • Ensure an organized approach to cleaning. Utilize the right tools, technology, and cleaning solutions for optimal results.
  • Always wear appropriate protective equipment, such as gloves and masks.
  • Ensure the aircraft is properly ventilated during cleaning.
  • Store cleaning chemicals in a safe location, away from children and pets.
  • Follow the manufacturer's instructions for all cleaning equipment and solutions.
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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the role of CPCP ADs and the responsibility for updating the Aircraft Maintenance Program (AMP)


Each CPCP, whether originally mandated by AD or later incorporated into the MPD for an aircraft, includes certain definitions to lay the groundwork and baselines for the programs.

Corrosion is a progressive condition and generally becomes more serious as it moves deeper into the grain of the affected metal. Therefore, different levels of corrosion are defined: Level 1 being the least serious, Level 2 being increasingly problematic, and Level 3 being the highest. However, these definitions were never standardized, although they are largely well-understood by CAAs, manufacturers, and the industry.

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Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the development of CPCP from Standalone to incorporation within the MRB process

Introduction “Corrosion Prevention and Control Programme” (CPCP)

This means a document reflecting a systematic approach to prevent and control corrosion in an aeroplane’s primary structure, consisting of basic corrosion tasks, including inspections, areas subject to those tasks, defined corrosion levels and compliance times (implementation thresholds and repeat intervals).

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