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Sofema Online (SOL) takes a look at the factors and elements related to root cause analysis within an Aviation Organisation following a finding from the Compliance / Quality Assurance System.

The need to identify the root cause of any nonconformities within an EASA (European Union Aviation Safety Agency) compliant aviation quality assurance system is crucial for maintaining the safety, reliability, and efficiency of aviation operations.

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Course Introduction

Welcome to "Health and Safety Essentials for DSE Users in the EU," a comprehensive training course designed to equip you with the knowledge and skills necessary to navigate the complexities of Display Screen Equipment (DSE) use in the workplace. This course is tailored for employers, HR professionals, health and safety officers, and anyone who regularly uses DSE as part of their daily work within the European Union context.

Through this program, you will explore the EU's regulatory framework, understand the health risks associated with prolonged DSE use, and learn how to implement effective risk management strategies to create a safer, more ergonomic workspace. From conducting risk assessments in compliance with Directive 90/270/EEC to adopting best practices for workstation setup and eye care, we will guide you every step of the way.

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Introduction – Sofema Online (SOL) takes a deep dive into the role & purpose of the Aircraft Maintenance Program (AMP)

Continuing Airworthiness (CAW)

Definition - Continuing Airworthiness management is the process by which an aircraft is kept in a condition where it remains airworthy throughout its life - or in other words i.e. technically fit for flight. In the words of ICAO:

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Presented by Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com


In the context of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, the distinction between Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) is not just a matter of semantics but a regulatory requirement. EASA mandates that QA and QC serve distinct, yet complementary roles within the aviation sector, specifically emphasizing the independence of QA from production processes, in contrast to QC's direct involvement.

The requirement for QA to remain independent from, yet collaboratively engaged with, QC and production processes, highlights EASA's nuanced approach to aviation safety and quality control.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers key aspects related to addressing airport and airplane security.


In response to the escalating issue of aircraft hijackings, the U.S. government explored various strategies to enhance airport and flight security.

To effectively counteract this security challenge, a multifaceted approach was adopted, emphasizing best practices such as:

Layered Security Approach to address diverse threats. Implementing multiple layers of security, from perimeter fencing and surveillance to passenger screening and in-flight security measures, helps to mitigate risks and address various threat vectors. Incorporating multiple security layers, including:

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Here we consider a broad overview of EASA regulations, focusing on the European Plan for Aviation Safety (EPAS) main objectives, priorities, and how they shape quality assurance efforts within the aviation sector.

EASA Regulations Overview

EASA regulations are comprehensive, covering all facets of aviation safety and enabling the demonstration of compliance with the relevant ICAO Standard and recommended practices. These regulations are divided into several annexes, referred to as "Parts," each addressing different areas of aviation:

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Sofema Online (SOL) takes a deep dive into the QA practices in place at European Airports.


In European aerodromes, Quality Assurance serves as the backbone of regulatory compliance and certification. Its role is distinctly separate from that of Quality Control, focusing on the mandatory assessment of compliance through independent verification of QC processes and other operational practices. QA ensures that aerodromes meet the necessary regulatory standards for safety, security, and environmental management, thereby maintaining their certification and operational privileges. This clear delineation of QA's role highlights its importance in the regulatory framework governing European aerodromes, ensuring they adhere to the highest standards of operational integrity and safety.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers the methods employed in delivering competency-based training as part of the use of the EASA Management System Assessment Tool (MSAT)


  • • Competency-based training (CBT) is a strategic approach that focuses on developing specific competencies required for effective safety management and the proficient use of the Management System Assessment Tool (MSAT).

By tailoring training to build on the following elements organizations can enhance their safety culture and operational efficiency.

 - critical thinking,

 - risk assessment,

 - data analysis, and

 - effective communication skills,

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers the key issues to be addressed when working from heights.


Working from heights involves significant risks, and understanding these risks is the first step towards mitigating them.

Through diligent risk identification, learning from past accidents, and the implementation of robust preventive measures, it is possible to greatly reduce the incidence of falls and injuries. Continuous effort, education, and adaptation to new safety standards are essential to protect workers effectively.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers key elements of Data Collection to support the use of the EASA Management System Assessment Tool.

Introduction Collecting Data

The safety data that an organisation should collect, should depend on the type of operations it performs, and its degree of digitalization (e.g. automated data-capturing systems).

  • • Filtered information will support the assessment of risks for data-rich organisations whereas organisations lacking data will rely more on expert judgement, risks known in the same profiling sector, or data pools (e.g., collaborative approach, risk sector profile);
  • • Data-rich organisations will be inclined to buy software supported by a robust risk assessment methodology to classify the risks in a more analytical, coherent approach.
  • • The volume of occurrence reports (voluntary and mandatory) as well as means and resources to manage them will depend on the safety culture; open-reporting culture, just culture; the magnitude of the operations and their criticality;
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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers the key elements related to the organisation's Security Responsibilities.


The organization and responsibilities within aviation security are pivotal for safeguarding the sector against a myriad of threats and ensuring the safe and secure transportation of passengers, crew, and cargo.

  • • This complex system involves various stakeholders, including international regulatory bodies, national governments, airport operators, airlines, and security personnel, each playing a distinct role within a comprehensive security framework.
  • • Adopting best practices such as risk-based security, leveraging technology, and fostering collaboration can significantly enhance the effectiveness of aviation security operations.
  • • Stakeholders must continually navigate the challenges of an evolving threat landscape, regulatory compliance, and resource allocation to maintain and improve the security of the aviation sector.
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Introduced by Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com

Quality Assurance within the context of EASA Part 145 regulations plays a critical role in ensuring the safety, reliability, and airworthiness of aircraft maintenance operations. These regulations mandate a comprehensive framework for Aircraft Maintenance Organisations (AMOs) to adhere to, encompassing a wide range of quality management principles and practices designed to uphold the highest standards of aircraft maintenance and safety.

The Foundation of QA in EASA Part 145

>> Accountable Manager's Responsibility: At the core of the EASA Part 145 quality system, the Accountable Manager holds ultimate responsibility for the entire Quality System, signifying the importance of leadership and accountability in maintaining quality standards.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers the typical terms and abbreviations compliant with ICAO Document 9640 and SAE AS6285E

Abbreviations and Terms

Active frost: Condition when frost is forming. Active frost occurs when

(1) the aircraft surface temperature is at or below the frost point, or

(2) there is water in liquid form (e.g., dew) on the aircraft surface and the surface falls to/or below 0 °C (frozen dew).

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers the different elements within EASA Part 147


This structured approach under Section A ensures that approved training organizations operate to the highest standards, contributing to the safety and efficiency of the aviation industry by providing well-trained maintenance personnel.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com Considers key aspects related to delivering an effective Aviation Security System


The history of civil aviation is marked not only by technological advancements and increased connectivity across the globe but also by periods of vulnerability to unlawful interference and terrorism.

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers both the Legal Framework and applicable Security Regulations

Introduction - Legal Framework and Security Regulations

The legal framework and security regulations governing civil aviation play a crucial role in maintaining safe and secure skies.

  • • These regulations are designed to address the myriad challenges posed by modern threats to aviation, including terrorism, cyber-attacks, and other forms of unlawful interference.
  • • A robust legal framework is essential for setting standards, guiding airport and airline security measures, and facilitating international cooperation.

Key Components of the Legal Framework - International Conventions and Agreements:

  • • Chicago Convention (1944): Establishes the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and sets basic principles for international air navigation and safety.
  • • Tokyo Convention (1963): Addresses offences and certain other acts occurring on board aircraft.
  • • Hague Convention (1970): Focuses on the suppression of unlawful seizure of aircraft, also known as hijacking.
  • • Montreal Convention (1971): Aims to combat unlawful acts of aviation terrorism, including sabotage of aircraft and international airports.

National Legislation:

  • • Countries implement their aviation security legislation, regulations, and guidelines based on the standards and recommended practices (SARPs) provided by ICAO.
  • • These laws are tailored to address specific national security concerns while aligning with international standards.


  • • Evolving Threats:

 - The dynamic nature of threats, especially with advancements in technology and methods used by malicious actors, poses a continuous challenge to existing legal frameworks and regulations.

  • • International Consistency:

 - Ensuring consistency in the implementation of international standards across different jurisdictions can be challenging due to varying national priorities, legal systems, and capabilities.

  • • Technology Integration:

 - Keeping regulations up-to-date with rapid technological advancements in aviation and security systems requires continuous review and adaptation of legal frameworks.

  • • Insider Threats:

 - Addressing threats from within the aviation industry, such as those posed by radicalized staff or corrupt employees, requires laws and regulations that encompass comprehensive vetting, continuous monitoring, and access control measures.

  • • Privacy Concerns:

 - Implementing security measures, especially those involving surveillance and data collection (e.g., biometrics and passenger data sharing), raises privacy and data protection concerns that must be balanced with security needs.

  • • Maintaining Legal Compliance:

 - Laws and regulations should be regularly reviewed and updated to remain relevant and effective against the evolving threat landscape.

 - This includes adopting new technologies and methodologies in security practices.

  • • International Cooperation and Harmonization:

 - Stakeholders should work together through international bodies like ICAO to ensure harmonization of aviation security standards.

 - Sharing best practices, intelligence, and security data can enhance global aviation security.

 - Engaging a wide range of stakeholders, including airlines, airports, technology providers, and law enforcement agencies, in the development and review of regulations ensures that policies are practical, effective, and comprehensive.

  • • Training and Capacity Building:

 - Investing in the training of aviation security personnel and the building of institutional capacities ensures that regulations are effectively implemented and enforced.

Next Steps

Sofema Aviation Services (SAS) www.sassofia.com and Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com provide EASA Compliant Regulatory and Vocational Training. Please see the website or email team@sassofia.com

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Sofema Online (SOL)  considers the key issues to be addressed when working from heights.

Introduction Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Harnesses are the cornerstone of fall protection PPE, It is important to select the right harness based on the job's specific needs and the worker's body type.

The correct selection, use, and maintenance of PPE, combined with practical demonstrations and ongoing practice sessions, are key to ensuring the safety of workers operating at heights.

It's important for organizations to prioritize these aspects and overcome any challenges through careful planning and commitment to safety standards

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Sofema Online (SOL) www.sofemaonline.com considers key trends emerging within the Aviation Security Landscape

Introduction - Recent Trends and the Future of Aviation Security

In recent years, the focus has expanded to include threats such as cyber-attacks on aviation systems and the use of drones near airports.

  • • The industry has responded by integrating advanced technology like biometric screening, AI for threat detection, and sophisticated cybersecurity measures to protect against a broad spectrum of threats.
  • • The historical context of unlawful interference with civil aviation reveals a pattern of evolving threats and responses.
  • • It highlights the importance of international cooperation, the adoption of advanced technology, and the need for continuous vigilance and adaptation to emerging security challenges.
  • • The goal remains clear: to ensure the safety and security of passengers and crew while maintaining the freedoms associated with global aviation.
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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the key issues to be addressed when working from heights

General Introduction

In an era were working at heights remains a necessity across various industries, from Aircraft Line to Base Maintenance, the importance of safety cannot be overstated.

Throughout "Working from Heights Safely" we consider the need to equip individuals with the critical knowledge and skills needed to navigate the risks of working at elevated levels.

It is important to understand the inherent risks and legal standards related to the practical application of safety measures and equipment associated with working from heights

Whether you're stepping onto a scaffold for the first time or looking to update your safety knowledge, it is essential to ensure you have a solid understanding of safety protocols, risk assessment, and the use of protective equipment when working at heights.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the typical obligations of an operator related to Winter Operations De-icing & Anti-icing.


The responsibilities of aircraft operators regarding effective de-icing and anti-icing are crucial for ensuring safety during winter operations. These responsibilities are guided by several SAE International documents and standards, notably AS6285, AS6286, and AS6332, which collectively form the Globalized Aircraft Deicing Standards.

The responsibilities of aircraft operators regarding effective de-icing and anti-icing of aircraft are crucial for ensuring saf

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