Blog posts tagged in Aviation

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the fundamental aspects of Aviation Business Risk Management


Risk management is a decision-making process that is designed to:

       »  Identify hazards in a controlled and systematic way
       »  Assess the degree of risk, and determine the best course of action. Key terms are:

Important Note: Absolute safety is not possible simply because complete freedom from all hazardous conditions is not possible.

Therefore, safety is a relative term that implies a level of risk that is both perceived and accepted.

Concerning Risk & Risk Management

        »  Risk is defined as a combination of the probability as well as possible severity of accident or loss from exposure to various hazards, including injury to people as well as the loss of resources.
       »  Risk management, a formalized way of thinking about these topics, is the logical process of weighing the potential costs of risks against the possible benefits of allowing those risks to stand uncontrolled.

Key Definitions

»  Hazard: a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event, such as an accident.
    o   It is a source of danger. For example, loose material on an airport apron represents a hazard.

»  Risk: the future impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated.
    o   It is the possibility of loss or injury.
    o   The level of risk is measured by the number of people or resources affected (exposure);
    o   The extent of possible loss (severity); and
    o   likelihood of loss (probability).

 »  Safety: The degree of freedom from those conditions that can cause any of the following :
    o   Death,
    o   Injury,
    o   Occupational illness,
    o   Damage or loss of equipment or property, or
    o   Damage to the environment.

Types of Risk

Total Risk: The sum of identified and unidentified risks.

Identified Risk: Risk that has been determined through various analysis techniques

       »  The first task of system safety is to identify, within practical limitations, all possible risks.

Unidentified Risk: Risk not yet identified.

       »  Some unidentified risks are subsequently identified when a mishap occurs. Some risk is never known.

Unacceptable Risk:  Risk which cannot be tolerated by the organisation or within the context of the particular activity.

       »  Unacceptable risk must be eliminated or controlled.

Acceptable Risk: The identified risk that is allowed to persist without further engineering or management action.

       »  Determining acceptable risk is sometimes a difficult yet necessary responsibility of the managing activity.
       »  The decision to accept is made with full knowledge that it is the user who is exposed to this risk.

Residual Risk: Is identified as any risk which is left over after all system safety efforts have been fully employed.

Note Concerning Residual Risk: It (residual Risk) is not necessarily the same as an acceptable risk. Residual risk can be considered as the sum of acceptable risk and unidentified risk.

Residual Risk is the total risk passed on to the user.

Principles of Risk Management

The goal of risk management is to proactively identify safety-related hazards and mitigate the associated risks.

      »  Risk management is an important component of decision-making.
      »  The ability to make good decisions is based upon direct or indirect experience and education.

 Consider the four fundamental principles of risk management:

»  Accept No Unnecessary Risk
    o   Unnecessary risk is that which carries no commensurate return in terms of benefits or opportunities.

»  Make Risk Decisions at the Appropriate Level
    o   Anyone can make a risk decision. However, risk decisions should be made by the person who can develop and implement risk controls.

»  Accept Risk When Benefits Outweigh the Costs
    o    All identified benefits should be compared against all identified costs. Even high-risk endeavours may be undertaken when there is clear knowledge that the sum of the benefits exceeds the sum of the costs.

»  Integrate Risk Management into Planning at All Levels
    o   Risks are more easily assessed and managed in the early stages of a project.
    o   Changes made later in the process of planning and executing may become more difficult, time-consuming, and expensive.

Note: A safety enhancement can occur at any time that appropriate and effective risk management take place.

Next Steps

Sofema offers EASA Compliant Organizational Development through Risk-Based Auditing & Measurement of Effectiveness as a 2 Days training program available as a classroom, either in-company or open or as a web-based instructor-led training course.

Please see or email

To view course details check here -

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers Safety Performance Indicators which can reflect the effectiveness of “people” engagement within the Aviation Organisations Safety Management System.

Introduction – Definition of Safety Culture:

Safety Culture is the set of enduring values and attitudes regarding safety issues, shared by every member of every level of an organization.
» Safety Culture refers to the extent to which every individual and every group of the organization is aware of the risks and unknown hazards induced by its activities.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers best practices related to key negotiating Tactics.

Negotiation – Process or Event?

In fact, the negotiation should be considered as a process rather than an event, in turn, this highlights the importance of building relationships as a key driver to successful negotiations.

» Poor Negotiators will try to control the conversation attempting to sell their position to the other side.
» Good Negotiators will listen intently to understand red flags and develop appropriate responses.

Last modified on

SofemaOnline (SOL) considers the different strategies to be considered as part of developing our negotiating skills.


Always start with a strong understanding concerning the type of negotiation you are facing. In reality, every negotiation is about finding & distributing value. Every effort should be made to keep negotiations friendly and constructive.  

Having a good understanding regarding the value expectations of each side together with an awareness of what is available – both from a tangible and intangible point of view. (It is seldom that negotiation is limited to the visible options, there is always the possibility for creative strategies)

Last modified on

SofemaOnline (SOL) considers the key processes for the management of the Aviation Technical Library.

Introduction – Aircraft Technical Library      

The Aircraft Technical Library provides for an established managed facility to control and deliver technical information throughout the business.

The Technical Librarian ensures that all publications and libraries required for the operation of the airline or Aircraft Maintenance Facility are and remain current.

Last modified on

SofemaOnline Considers ICAW in relationship to Aircraft Maintenance Organisation (AMO) and Continuing Airworthiness Maintenance Organisation (CAMO) Technical Libraries

Introduction - Instructions for continuing airworthiness (ICAW)

For an aircraft or aeronautical product, means

» Written instructions, as in force from time to time that specifies requirements, procedures and standards for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft or aeronautical product;

Last modified on

Review by SofemaOnline (SOL)


Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/897 of 12 March 2019 - Inclusion of Risk-Based Compliance Verification in Annex I and the Implementation of Requirements for Environmental Protection

• In accordance with Article 83 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, the Agency itself, or through national aviation authorities or qualified entities, is to carry out investigations necessary for the performance of its certification tasks.
• The Agency assesses the applications but it is not required to carry out an exhaustive investigation in all cases pursuant to Article 83 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139.

Last modified on

Introduction by Sofema Online (SOL)

The following abbreviated notes provide a summary of the key events related to the EASA Type Certification Process.

Type Certification

 A type certificate is an approval made by a regulatory authority that an aircraft is manufactured according to an approved design, and that the design ensures compliance with airworthiness requirements.

• The type certificate (TC) implies that the aircraft is manufactured according to the approved design and can be issued an Airworthiness Certificate.
• To meet airworthiness requirements, the aircraft, related products (engine and propeller), parts, and appliances must be approved.
• Within the European Union (EU), implementation rules for type certification are laid down by the Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 of 3 August 2012.

Note - A Type Certificate is not an Airworthiness Certificate.

Last modified on

Presentation by Sofema Online (SOL)


The purpose of an AOC is to certify that specified commercial air transport operations are authorized by the States Civil Aviation Authority and are in conformance with applicable regulations.  

During the certification process, the CAA is to be satisfied that:

       »  The applicant, who will have the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the operation, is eligible for the issuance of an AOC and
       »  Has the ability and competence both to conduct safe and efficient operations and to comply with applicable regulations. [State CAA]

To be eligible for an AOC an applicant must be certified for operating at least one aircraft that is not wet-leased.

Last modified on

Comments by Sofema Online (SOL)

Introduction The EU Aviation Oversight System

The basis of the EASA working relationship is one of both cooperation and partnership between EASA and its Member States

EASA Regulations are issued as

» Implementing Rules – Considered as “Hard” European Law which is applicable to both Industry as well as Regulatory Authorities in each Member State and
» Acceptable Means of Compliance & Guidance Material (AMC & GM) which are considered as “Soft” European Law for which the Member State Regulatory Authority may agree to deviations – Known as Alternate Means of Compliance (AMOC)

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the merits of taking control of your learning journey


So let’s take this challenge head-on and accept that you deserve a clear and well-understood path to deliver the outcomes to which you aspire.

You Owe Yourself a Career Path Plan

Are you seeing the benefits of a carefully constructed career path plan (Is it supported by your employer (not a requirement but certainly a major positive if your employer is supportive of your career aspirations). Be assured that creating a career path plan is an essential element to support your lifelong career objectives.

Last modified on

Presented by Sofema Online (SOL)

Issued by EASA Competent Authority (CA) 

Reasons Why CA will issue the ARC

» Whenever circumstances reveal the existence of a potential risk to aviation safety

»  When the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft is managed by a CAMO or CAO which has its principal place of business located in a third country

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the importance of setting the correct pricing


Developing both a credible price structure together with an efficient pricing strategy is an important aspect of business success.

       » How are the products arranged to show their value
       » How to direct customers to a profitable choice
       » How to Upsell
       » The Effect of using Price Anchors

Last modified on

Visit Sofema Library for access to a free resource of information across a range of subjects!

Visit Now! -

The following area are covered – if you are looking for something else – please email

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the different roles of SB,s & AD,s

Airworthiness Directives

Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are legally enforceable rules issued by the Regulatory Authority of the Type Certificate Holder, (TCH) Supplemental Type Certificate Holder (STCH) or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) (may also be issued by other Regulatory Authorities).

Last modified on

Answer – All of the 13,000 Aviation Professionals have enrolled in SofemaOnline (SOL) EASA & FAA Online Regulatory Compliant Training Platform as registered users.

Introducing SofemaOnline

Welcome to SofemaOnline! The №1 destination for online regulatory compliant and vocational training courses in the aviation industry. (We will be glad to welcome you on board!)

Last modified on

Sofema Online looks at best practice Meeting Facilitation


Well facilitated meetings are far more productive than meetings that carry on in a relatively uncontrolled manner.

It is should be clear that people will more motivated and engage more willingly in group dialogue when they can see a clear connection to what’s in it for them.

Understand that the role of a facilitator is not to be an expert rather to create an environment where people can freely engage with the meeting objectives.

Last modified on

Process Review by Sofema Online (


When investigating problems we should all aim to understand the difference between addressing the symptoms of a problem versus understanding the contributing factors and finally understanding the Root Causes of a given situation or problem.

If we can look deeper and to address on the way all Root Causes as well as Contributing Factors, then we can consider how to fix the underlying disconnects in the system and processes so that that the problem hopefully goes away and does not re-occur.

Last modified on

Sofema Online considers the role of Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) in Aviation System Root Cause Analysis.


Human and System errors can have quite significant negative outcomes. Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) looks at each process step to identify risks and possible errors from many different sources.

The sources most often considered are:

Last modified on

Steve Bentley CEO of Sofema Group ( considers the common errors that people make when considering Aviation Errors

Lack of Detail of Appreciation Related to the initial assessment of the Event, Issue or Problem

Spending time to analyze the initial problem so that we understand “What” has happened as well as “How” it happened. It is important to perform this analysis before moving onto Root Cause Analysis.

This will not only determine the nature of the problem but will also identify exactly where the problem exists within the system, to understand when it exists. So, it is important to recognize that a well defined Problem Statement drives the entire Root Cause Analysis effort.

Tagged in: Aviation RCA Root Cause
Last modified on